Selected Otologic Disorders Causing Dizziness

Gail Ishiyama, MD Neuro-otology p. 468-490 April 2021, Vol.27, No.2 doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000977
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW This article details updated clinical presentations and current treatment paradigms of the common otologic disorders that may present to the neurologist for vertigo, including Ménière disease, superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome, perilymphatic fistula, barotrauma, cholesteatoma, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, and autoimmune inner ear disease including Cogan syndrome.

RECENT FINDINGS The recent data on modern imaging techniques with three-dimensional delayed IV contrast in Ménière disease, findings on the clinical and testing parameters to diagnose semicircular canal dehiscence and barotrauma, and clinical findings in Ramsay Hunt syndrome, cholesteatoma, and enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome are discussed in the article. The most recent findings on the treatment and evaluation of autoimmune inner ear disease and Cogan syndrome are also covered.

SUMMARY This article discusses the common clinical otologic entities in patients who may present to the neurologist for vertigo, and it can be used as a guide in the diagnosis of these conditions with the use of auditory, vestibular, and imaging results.

Address correspondence to Dr Gail Ishiyama, Reed Neurological Research Center, UCLA Department of Neurology, Division of Neurotology, 710 Westwood Blvd, Box 951769, Los Angeles, CA 90095, [email protected].

RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr Ishiyama has received research/grant support from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (10-001449).

UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Dr Ishiyama reports no disclosure.

© 2021 American Academy of Neurology.