Restless Legs Syndrome and Other Common Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Celia Garcia-Malo, MD; Sofia Romero Peralta, MD; Diego Garcia-Borreguero, MD, PhD Sleep Neurology p. 963-987 August 2020, Vol.26, No.4 doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000886
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW In this article, the different sleep-related movement disorders are discussed with special attention given to restless legs syndrome (RLS).

RECENT FINDINGS The differential diagnosis of sleep-related movement disorders can often be challenging; therefore, it is essential to have accurate information to make a correct diagnosis. This article focuses on RLS, highlighting the change in the paradigm of initial treatment, the role played by iron (pathophysiologic and therapeutic), and how to approach possible complications occurring with long-term treatment.

SUMMARY RLS is one of the most common neurologic conditions, and it is common in clinical practice to find patients experiencing symptoms suggestive of RLS. Neurologists must be careful and thorough in the diagnosis, excluding RLS mimics. The decisions regarding which specific sleep-related movement disorder is present and how it should be treated are important because in certain cases, especially in RLS, adverse effects and long-term complications are frequently reported with the use of certain drugs.

Address correspondence to Dr Celia Garcia-Malo, Sleep Research Institute, Paseo de la Habana 151, 28036 Madrid, Spain,

RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr Garcia-Malo has received grant/research support from Accord Healthcare and the International RLS Study Group. Dr Romero Peralta reports no disclosure. Dr Garcia-Borreguero has received grant support from Merck & Co, Inc.

UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Drs Garcia-Malo, Romero Peralta, and Garcia-Borreguero report no disclosures.

© 2020 American Academy of Neurology.