Parkinson Disease

Theresa A. Zesiewicz, MD, FAAN p. 896-918 August 2019, Vol.25, No.4 doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000764
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Important advances in the treatment, etiology, and the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease have been made in the past 50 years. This article provides a review of the current understanding of Parkinson disease, including the epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment options of the disease.

RECENT FINDINGS: Parkinson disease is now recognized to be a heterogeneous condition marked by both motor and nonmotor symptoms. It is composed of preclinical, prodromal, and clinical phases. New medications with improved ease of administration have been approved for its treatment. Innovative surgical therapies for Parkinson disease may be used when motor symptoms persist despite optimal medical management.

SUMMARY: Parkinson disease is a complex, heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. Considerable progress has been made in its treatment modalities, both pharmacologic and surgical. While its cure remains elusive, exciting new research advances are on the horizon.

Address correspondence to Dr Theresa A. Zesiewicz, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, MDC Box 55, Tampa, FL 33612, tzesiewi@health.usf.edu.

RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr Zesiewicz has received personal compensation for serving on the advisory boards of Boston Scientific; Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc; and Steminent Biotherapeutics. Dr Zesiewicz has received personal compensation as senior editor for Neurodegenerative Disease Management and as a consultant for Steminent Biotherapeutics. Dr Zesiewicz has received royalty payments as co-inventor of varenicline for treating imbalance (patent number 9,463,190) and nonataxic imbalance (patent number 9,782,404). Dr Zesiewicz has received research/grant support as principal investigator/investigator for studies from AbbVie Inc; Biogen; Biohaven Pharmaceutics; Boston Scientific; Bukwang Pharmaceuticals Co, Ltd; Cala Health, Inc; Cavion; Friedreich’s Ataxia Research Alliance; Houston Methodist Research Institute; National Institutes of Health (READISCA U01); Retrotope Inc; and Takeda Development Center Americas, Inc.

UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Dr Zesiewicz reports no disclosure.

© 2019 American Academy of Neurology.