Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Important advances in the treatment, etiology, and the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease have been made in the past 50 years. This article provides a review of the current understanding of Parkinson disease, including the epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment options of the disease.
Parkinson disease is now recognized to be a heterogeneous condition marked by both motor and nonmotor symptoms. It is composed of preclinical, prodromal, and clinical phases. New medications with improved ease of administration have been approved for its treatment. Innovative surgical therapies for Parkinson disease may be used when motor symptoms persist despite optimal medical management.
Parkinson disease is a complex, heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. Considerable progress has been made in its treatment modalities, both pharmacologic and surgical. While its cure remains elusive, exciting new research advances are on the horizon.