Diagnosis, Differential Diagnosis, and Misdiagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis

Andrew J. Solomon, MD Multiple Sclerosis and other CNS Inflammatory Diseases p. 611-635 June 2019, Vol.25, No.3 doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000728
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is often challenging. This article discusses approaches to the clinical assessment for MS that may improve diagnostic accuracy.

RECENT FINDINGS Contemporary diagnostic criteria for MS continue to evolve, while knowledge about diseases that form the differential diagnosis of MS continues to expand. Recent data concerning causes of MS misdiagnosis (the incorrect assignment of a diagnosis of MS) have further informed approaches to syndromes that may mimic MS and the accurate diagnosis of MS.

SUMMARY This article provides a practical update on MS diagnosis through a discussion of recently revised MS diagnostic criteria, a renewed consideration of MS differential diagnosis, and contemporary data concerning MS misdiagnosis.

Address correspondence to Dr Andrew J. Solomon, Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, University Health Center—Arnold 2, 1 S Prospect St, Burlington, VT 05401, [email protected].

RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr Solomon has served as a consultant for Biogen and EMD Serono, Inc, and has received research/grant support from Biogen and personal compensation for speaking engagements from Med Learning Group, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, and RMEI Medical Education.

UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Dr Solomon reports no disclosure.

© 2019 American Academy of Neurology.