Address correspondence to Dr Stephen VanHaerents, 675 N St Clair, Ste 7-112, Chicago, IL 60611, firstname.lastname@example.org.
RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr VanHaerents has received research/grant support from the Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, and SAGE Therapeutics. Dr VanHaerents has received travel honoraria from NeuroPace and SAGE Therapeutics. Dr Gerard has received personal compensation as a lecturer for the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Society of OB/GYN Hospitalists, and UCB China and has received research/grant support from the Eleanor Wood-Prince Grant from the Woman’s Board of Northwestern Memorial Hospital, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health, SAGE Therapeutics, and Sunovion Pharmaceutical Inc.
UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Drs VanHaerents and Gerard discuss the unlabeled/investigational use of immunosuppressant medications for the treatment of autoimmune encephalitis (cyclophosphamide, IV immunoglobulin, IV methylprednisolone/corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and rituximab) and the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies for the treatment of seizures and status epilepticus (convulsive and nonconvulsive), which include diazepam, fosphenytoin/phenytoin, levetiracetam, lorazepam, midazolam, phenobarbital, and valproate sodium/valproic acid. Drs VanHaerents and Gerard discuss the unlabeled/investigational use of several agents for the treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus, which include corticosteroids/methylprednisolone, electroconvulsive therapy, hypothermia, isoflurane, IV immunoglobulin, ketamine, ketogenic diet, midazolam, pentobarbital, propofol, thiopental, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and vagal nerve stimulation.