Memory Dysfunction

G. Peter Gliebus, MD Behavioral Neurology and Psychiatry p. 727-744 June 2018, Vol.24, No.3 doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000619
REVIEW ARTICLES
BROWSE ARTICLES
Article as PDF
Article Level Metrics
-- Select an option --

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current understanding of memory system anatomy and physiology, as well as relevant evaluation methods and pathologic processes.

RECENT FINDINGS: Our understanding of memory formation advances each year. Successful episodic memory formation depends not only on intact medial temporal lobe structures but also on well-orchestrated interactions with other large-scale brain networks that support executive and semantic processing functions. Recent discoveries of cognitive control networks have helped in understanding the interaction between memory systems and executive systems. These interactions allow access to past experiences and enable comparisons between past experiences and external and internal information. The semantic memory system is less clearly defined anatomically. Anterior, lateral, and inferior temporal lobe regions appear to play a crucial role in the function of the semantic processing system. Different but tightly interconnected cortical regions, such as the prefrontal region, may play a controlling role in this system. The presentation of clinical disease affecting memory is the result of the selective vulnerability of the memory system. An understanding of current concepts of memory anatomy, physiology, and evaluation plays a central role in establishing an accurate diagnosis.

SUMMARY: Different memory systems rely on separate but overlapping distributed brain networks. Certain pathologic processes preferentially affect memory systems. An understanding of memory formation stages will enable more accurate diagnosis.

Address correspondence to Dr G. Peter Gliebus, 245 N 15th St, NCB 7102, MS 423, Philadelphia, PA 19102, Gg65@drexel.edu.

RELATIONSHIP DISCLOSURE: Dr Gliebus receives research/grant support from the Drexel Clinical and Translational Research Institute.

UNLABELED USE OF PRODUCTS/INVESTIGATIONAL USE DISCLOSURE: Dr Gliebus reports no disclosure.

CONTINUUM AUDIO INTERVIEW AVAILABLE ONLINE

© 2018 American Academy of Neurology