Purpose of Review: This article addresses relevant peripheral neuroanatomy, clinical presentations, and diagnostic findings in common entrapment neuropathies involving the median, ulnar, radial, and fibular (peroneal) nerves.
Recent Findings: Entrapment neuropathies are a common issue in general neurology practice. Early diagnosis and effective management of entrapment mononeuropathies are essential in preserving limb function and maintaining patient quality of life. Median neuropathy at the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome), ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, radial neuropathy at the spiral groove, and fibular neuropathy at the fibular head are among the most frequently encountered entrapment mononeuropathies. Electrodiagnostic studies and peripheral nerve ultrasound are employed to help confirm the clinical diagnosis of nerve compression or entrapment and to provide precise localization for nerve injury. Peripheral nerve ultrasound demonstrates nerve enlargement at or near sites of compression.
Summary: Entrapment neuropathies are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Accurate diagnosis and effective management require knowledge of peripheral neuroanatomy and recognition of key clinical symptoms and findings. Clinical diagnoses may be confirmed by diagnostic testing with electrodiagnostic studies and peripheral nerve ultrasound.