Purpose of Review: This article reviews the clinical approach to the diagnosis of adult patients presenting with chorea, using Huntington disease (HD) as a point of reference, and presents the clinical elements that help in the diagnostic workup. Principles of management for chorea and some of the associated features of other choreic syndromes are also described.
Recent Findings: Mutations in the C9orf72 gene, previously identified in families with a history of frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or both, have been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of HD phenocopies in the white population.
Summary: The diagnosis of chorea in adult patients is challenging. A varied number of associated causes require a physician to prioritize the investigations, and a detailed history of chorea and associated findings will help. For chorea presenting as part of a neurodegenerative syndrome, the consideration of a mutation in the C9orf72 gene is a new recommendation after excluding HD. There are no new treatment options for chorea, aside from dopamine blockers and tetrabenazine. There are no disease-modifying treatments for HD or other neurodegenerative choreic syndromes.