This article discusses the specific neurologic issues that arise in patients with rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjo¨gren syndrome. Diagnosis and management are discussed.
Advances include advanced imaging, serologic and CSF markers, and targeted immune-modulating therapies. The use of these modalities are discussed in detail.
Rheumatic disorders are quite common and can result in disabling but many times treatable neurologic sequelae. The key is early diagnosis and management. Awareness of the common presentations and current modalities of diagnosis and treatment is critical to improved outcomes.
Address correspondence to Dr Jonathan M. Goldstein, Department of Neurology, Belaire Building, 5th floor, Hospital for Special Surgery, 525 East 71st St, New York, NY 10021, GoldsteinJ@HSS.edu.
Relationship Disclosure: Dr Goldstein has served on advisory panels for CSL-Behring and Grifols and as a speaker for Athena Diagnostics, Inc.
Unlabeled Use of Products/Investigational Use Disclosure: Dr Goldstein discusses the unlabeled use of cyclophosphamide, rituximab, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine.