This article aims to provide a broad overview of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke, from recognition and diagnosis to the short-term and long-term management based on current available literature.
Arterial ischemic stroke in children represents a significant disorder with a concerning high rate of adverse outcomes, including potentially preventable recurrent stroke. Although awareness of pediatric stroke is increasing, diagnosis is still commonly delayed or missed altogether, particularly in younger children. Current vascular imaging techniques have limitations in accurate diagnosis of arteriopathies that are now recognized as an important cause of childhood stroke. Significant variability exists in treatment of pediatric stroke. Management is based on published consensus guidelines; however, individual children require an individualized approach.
As pediatric stroke specialists become increasingly available, the collaboration of such experts on individual management is crucial. Definitive evidence-based treatment for pediatric stroke awaits the development of randomized controlled trials.