A spinal cord injury is a devastating, life-changing neurologic event that challenges patients, families, and caregivers. A myriad of neurologic and medical sequelae occur subsequent to the original insult. This article discusses epidemiology, primary and secondary injuries, acute therapy, and neuroprotective agents as well as the exciting areas of spinal cord recovery and regeneration, with an emphasis on cellular transplantation. Neurologic neurorehabilitation techniques and equipment are also reviewed, with a focus on their relation to increasing the independence and functional capacity of the patient. The article concludes with the clinical presentation and management of common spinal cord injury complications.