ArticleTechnological Synergy Improving the Placement and Performance of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts Experience With Stereotactic-Guided Ventricular Catheters With Programmable Shunt Valves Part IIHammers, Ronald MD; Anderson, Douglas MD; Prabhu, Vikram MD; Origitano, T. C. MD, PhD Author Information Dr. Hammers is a Resident, Dr. Anderson is Associate Professor, Dr. Prabhu is Assistant Professor, and Dr. Origitano is Professor, Department of Neurological Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153; E-mail: [email protected]. The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with or financial interests in any commercial organizations pertaining to this educational activity. All faculty and staff in a position to control the content of this CME activity have disclosed that they have no financial relationships with, or financial interests in, any commercial companies pertaining to this educational activity. Lippincott CME Institute, Inc., has identified and resolved all faculty and staff conflicts of interest regarding this educational activity. Category: General neurosurgery Contemporary Neurosurgery: July 15, 2008 - Volume 30 - Issue 14 - p 1-5 doi: 10.1097/01.CNE.0000324499.03219.0f Buy CME Test Metrics Abstract Learning Objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: Describe the complications associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts and the ways in which new technology may be able to alleviate these complications. Describe the hardware and software used in neuronavigation as it pertains to ventriculoperitoneal shunts and the surgical techniques involved in successful catheter placement. Recall the indications for and postoperative management options, potential complications, and financial implications associated with programmable valve use. This article is the second of two parts. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.