Given the sparse nature of acute mania or psychosis in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), physicians may not be aware of the association of these two entities.
To conduct a systematic review of the literature for the purpose of identifying all studies reporting mania and/or psychosis in individuals with PAI.
We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from June 22, 1970 to June 22, 2021, for the purpose of identifying all studies reporting instances of mania or psychosis associated with PAI.
We identified nine case reports featuring nine patients (Mage = 43.3 years, male = 44.4%) over eight countries that fit our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Eight (89%) of the patients had experienced psychosis. Manic and/or psychotic symptom resolution was achieved in 100% of the cases, of which steroid replacement therapy was efficacious in seven (78%) cases and was sufficient in six (67%).
Acute mania and psychosis in the context of PAI is a very rare presentation of an already uncommon disease. Resolution of acute psychiatric change is reliably achieved with the correction of underlying adrenal insufficiency.