NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. ShariatPoly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in prostate and urothelial cancerBrönimann, Stephana; Lemberger, Ursulaa; Bruchbacher, Andreasa; Shariat, Shahrokh F.a,b,c,d,e,f,g; Hassler, Melanie R.aAuthor Information aDepartment of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria bDepartments of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York cDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, USA dDepartment of Urology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic eInstitute for Urology and Reproductive Health, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia fDepartment of Urology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan gEuropean Association of Urology Research Foundation, Arnhem, The Netherlands Correspondence to Melanie R. Hassler, MD, PhD, Department of Urology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 14040026150; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: July 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 519-526 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000776 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this article is to give an overview of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) trials in prostate cancer and to discuss emerging approaches with potential future clinical implementation in both prostate and urothelial cancer. Recent findings PARPis are a class of drugs that can be applied for the treatment of homologous recombination repair (HRR)-deficient tumors. Tumors are potentially sensitive to PARPi harbor mutations in genes relevant for DNA damage repair, such as BRCA1/2 or ATM, which are present to a significant degree in metastatic prostate and urothelial cancer patients. Several PARPis have been successfully tested in clinical trials for HRR-deficient metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), and olaparib and rucaparib have recently received breakthrough approval in BRCA1/2 mutated mCRPC. Combination treatment of PARPis with androgen-receptor inhibitors or with checkpoint inhibitors and earlier frontline applications are currently being evaluated, and clinical trials enrolling bladder cancer (BCa) patients with HRR deficiency have recently been initiated. Summary Approximately 10% of mCRPC patients and 34% of metastatic BCa patients have tumors with HRR deficiency and may benefit from PARPi treatment. Correct identification of these patients as well as determining the most adequate time point for drug administration will be key to successful clinical implementation. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.