IMAGE GUIDED DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY IN UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Tobias Maurer and Declan MurphySentinel lymph node surgery in prostate cancer using magnetic particlesWinter, Alexander; Engels, Svenja; Wawroschek, FriedhelmAuthor Information University Hospital for Urology, Klinikum Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Correspondence to Alexander Winter, University Hospital for Urology, Klinikum Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Rahel-Straus-Str. 10, 26133 Oldenburg, Germany. Tel: +49 441 403 2302; fax: +49 441 403 2303; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Urology: March 2018 - Volume 28 - Issue 2 - p 184-190 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000480 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are tested to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to exploit the advantages of targeted pelvic SLN dissection (sPLND), while circumventing the disadvantages of established radioactive labeling. Here we review recent studies about sPLND in prostate cancer (PCa), including the first results of SLN detection using intraprostatic SPION-injection. Recent findings A recent systematic literature review reveals that the diagnostic accuracy of sPLND is comparable with extended PLND (ePLND). sPLND combined with ePLND achieve better node removal by increasing the number of affected nodes. The first sentinel-based nomogram predicting lymph node invasion is established. A sentinel-nomogram update provides comparative predictions relative to ePLND models. sPLND using a magnetometer and SPIONs as a tracer is successful whenever applied to PCa, and SLN identification using MRI after intraprostatic injection of SPIONs is feasible. SLNs are present in an unexpectedly high number outside the ePLND template. Summary SLN detection outside the ePLND template and the increased diagnostic value of sPLND compared with ePLND supports the individualized extension of PLND using sPLND in PCa. SPION-MRI, combined with a hand-held magnetometer, provides a nonradioactive technique for preoperative and intraoperative SLN localization. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of sPLND on oncological outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.