Clinical implications of the microbiome in urinary tract diseasesHiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, AndréCurrent Opinion in Urology: March 2017 - Volume 27 - Issue 2 - p 93–98 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000367 INFECTIOUS AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASE IN UROLOGY: Edited by Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen and Tommaso Cai Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. Recent findings High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation. Furthermore, treatment of urinary tract infections by antibiotics globally impacts community profiles of the intestinal microbiota and might indirectly influence human health. Alternative treatment options like application of probiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections are currently under investigation. Summary The urinary microbiome and its relationship to urinary tract diseases is currently under comprehensive investigation. Further studies are needed to shed light on the role of commensal microbiota for urinary tract infections. Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospital Regensburg, Germany Correspondence to Dr André Gessner, Professor, Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.