Purpose of review
Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are challenging to treat because of limited treatment options and potential side effects of less frequently used anti-infectives. In the past few years, several new antimicrobial agents effective against MDR Gram-negatives have become available. This review focuses on the treatment options for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) caused by MDR Gram-negatives.
The novel combinations, betalactam or carbapenem and betalactamase inhibitor, ceftazidime/avibactam and meropenem/vaborbactam, are effective for infections caused by KPC-carbapenemase-producing pathogens. Imipenem/relebactam, another carbapenem/betalactamase inhibitor combination, has been approved for the treatment of cUTI. However, data on the efficacy of imipenem/relebactam against carbapenem-resistant pathogens is still limited. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is mainly used for the treatment of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. For the treatment of cUTI caused by extended-spectrum betalactamases producing Enterobacterales aminoglycosides or intravenous fosfomycin should be considered.
To ensure prudent use and to avoid the development of resistance to novel anti-infective substances, an interdisciplinary approach, including urologists, microbiologists, and infectious disease physicians, is strongly advised.