PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. MurphyPET imaging in urology: a rapidly growing successful collaborationFarolfi, Andreaa; Koschel, Samanthab; Murphy, Declan G.b,c; Fanti, StefanoaAuthor Information aNuclear Medicine Unit, University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital, Italy bDivision of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne cSir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Correspondence to Andrea Farolfi, Nuclear Medicine Unit, University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital, Italy. Tel: +39 0512143196; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: September 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 5 - p 623-627 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000800 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To discuss and highlight the recent findings in urological oncology focusing on nuclear medicine advances on imaging and therapy. Recent findings Testicular tumors: 18F-FDG as the standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with proven good accuracy in detecting metastatic testicular cancer; urothelial cancer: good accuracy of 18F-FDG PET in detecting distant metastases but poor results in detecting local disease; prostate cancer: prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for imaging prostate cancer with unprecedented accuracy in both staging and restaging and prospective studies were recently published. In castration-resistant prostate cancer, PSMA-targeting radionuclide therapy is showing potential as a curative possibility (e.g. using 177Lu-PSMA); renal cell cancer (RCC): besides FDG other PET radiotracers are under clinical evaluation (e.g. antibody-based molecular imaging, metabolic radiotracers and PSMA-based tracers). PSMA-based imaging may have applications in staging clear-cell RCC and in the selection and in the antiangiogenic treatment's response assessment. Possible role of PSMA-targeting radionuclide therapy? Summary In urological oncology, the use of 18F-FDG has been limited by a generally low tumor uptake and physiological 18F-FDG excretion by the urinary system. Other radiotracers are increasing the urologist's portfolio allowing imaging of several biochemical pathways. Theragnostic possibilities are also under investigation thanks to PSMA-based tracers. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.