PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. MurphyClinical application of Fluciclovine PET, choline PET and gastrin-releasing polypeptide receptor (bombesin) targeting PET in prostate cancerCeci, Francescoa; Castellucci, Paolob; Polverari, Giuliac; Iagaru, AndreidAuthor Information aNuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin bMetropolitan Nuclear Medicine, S.Orsola-Malpighi University, Bologna cPET Center, Affidea IRMET, Turin, Italy dDivision of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, USA Correspondence to Francesco Ceci, MD, PhD, Nuclear Medicine, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Corso AM Dogliotti, 14, 10126 Turin, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Urology: September 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 5 - p 641-648 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000794 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this review is to explore the clinical application of different PET radiopharmaceuticals in prostate cancer (PCa), beyond inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Recent findings Choline PET represented in the last decades the standard of reference for PET imaging in PCa and has been recently included in clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of metastasis-directed therapy in oligo-metastatic disease. Fluciclovine, as synthetic amino acid, has been proposed for investigating PCa. The results obtained by the first prospective studies led to FDA approval in 2016 in patients with biochemical recurrence. Recently, phase II/III trials explored its accuracy compared with PSMA PET and its impact on patient management. Imaging the gastrin-releasing polypeptide receptor (GRPR) recently drawn attention. Radio-labelled GRPR antagonists have the potential to be used as theranostic agents. Further evaluation is needed to understand the relation between GRPR expression and hormonal-resistant PCa, and for tumors characterized by heterogeneity of receptors expressed (e.g. PSMA-negative) on their cell surface. Summary Other new generation PET tracers may play an important role in PCa, namely in case of PSMA-negative phenotypes. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.