Purpose of review
To review recent literature related to urologic malignancies in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). We performed a literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and CIANHL), with a focus on articles published between January 2015 and December 2019.
Recent reports demonstrate a lower incidence of bladder cancer in the NLUTD population than previously found, although still significantly higher than the general population. Bladder cancer in patients with NLUTD is usually diagnosed at a younger age, and is associated with higher rates of squamous cell cancer, a higher stage at presentation, and increased mortality. Evidence for screening for bladder cancer in NLUTD is conflicting, with no formal protocols proven for general use. NLUTD has been shown to have a lower rate of prostate cancer, and may be associated with an earlier diagnosis of renal cancer.
Genitourinary malignancies, although still rare, are an important source of morbidity and mortality in patients with NLUTD. Physicians should recognize that bladder cancer in NLUTD is often a lethal disease. Further research is needed to assist physicians with early recognition of these malignancies to improve patient outcomes.