GENDER MEDICINE, INFERTILITY AND ERECTILE FUNCTION: Edited by Ryan Flannigan and Ranjith RamasamyReasons for worldwide decline in male fertilityMann, Uday; Shiff, Benjamin; Patel, Premal Author Information Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Correspondence to Premal Patel, Health Sciences Centre, AD203 – 720 Sherbrook Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3A 1R9. Tel: +1 204 787 8520; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: May 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 3 - p 296-301 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000745 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To review the evidence regarding a decrease in worldwide sperm parameters and discuss potential causative factors. Recent findings The topic of worldwide decline in sperm parameters is contentious; however, recent high-quality studies have demonstrated that there is indeed a decline in sperm parameters. Several retrospective and basic science studies have shown possible links for this decline in sperm parameters such as obesity, diet, and environmental toxins. Summary There exist substantial data to suggest a decline in sperm counts over time. Although causative factors have yet to be fully elucidated, potential causes include, increased rates of obesity, poor diet, and exposure to environmental toxins. How this decline in sperm counts reflects fertility has yet to be determined. As such, further studies are necessary to evaluate whether this decline in sperm count correlates with decreased fecundity and how to identify and mitigate potential causative factors. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.