Purpose of review
The aim of this article is to review incidence, risk factors, and optimal management of de-novo urothelial carcinoma in transplant recipients.
There is a two to three-fold increased risk for de-novo malignant tumors after solid-organ transplantation, but there is currently no consensus regarding optimal management of de-novo urothelial carcinoma in transplanted patients. Known risk factors include polyomavirus BK, aristolochic acid, and smoking. Data suggest a higher rate of high-grade tumors, as well as predominantly higher stage at primary diagnosis, for both NMIBC and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Treatment for NMIBC includes TURB, mitomycin, and Bacille de Calmette-Guérin instillation with special concern to the immunosuppressive regime. Treatment of MIBC or advanced urothelial carcinoma includes radical cystectomy with chemotherapy if the patient is eligible. A screening should be performed in all transplant recipients, to allow early diagnosis.
De-novo urothelial carcinoma in transplant recipients is more frequent than in the general population and these tumors were more likely to be high-grade tumors and diagnosed at an advanced stage. There is very little information available on the optimal treatment for these patients. However, aggressive treatment and a strict management according the given recommendations are of the utmost importance.