BLADDER CANCER: Edited by Juan Palou and Óscar Rodríguez FabaFrontiers in combining immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced urothelial cancer managementRebhan, Katharinaa; Laukhtina, Ekaterinaa,b; Shariat, Shahrokh F.a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h; Gust, Kilian M.aAuthor Information aDepartment of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria bInstitute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia cDepartment of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York dDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, USA eDepartment of Urology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic fKarl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria gDepartment of Urology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan hEuropean Association of Urology Research Foundation, Arnhem, Netherlands Correspondence to Kilian M. Gust, MD, Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 14040026150; fax: +43 14040023320; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: May 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 3 - p 457-466 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000765 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review provides an overview of currently ongoing clinical trials evaluating the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) with other therapies in locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer and the rationale for this combination approach. We discuss the preliminary results from early data presented at recent meetings regarding the efficacy and safety of novel combination therapies including a CPI for metastatic urothelial cancer. Recent findings CPI emerged as novel first-line or second-line treatment options in advanced and metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC). Although the response rates and their sustainability are promising, it is far from a home run. Combination therapies have already shown improved efficacy in several other tumor entities. Summary Numerous clinical trials currently investigate combinations of CPI with other CPI, previously established systemic chemotherapy, targeted therapies, vaccines, or accompanied with radiotherapy. Preliminary data shows promising results. These results suggest that targeting pathways of immune response combined with established or novel oncological therapies may lead to a synergistic antitumor effect. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.