Purpose of review
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of recent findings regarding the risk factors for bladder cancer.
Most of the available data derive from retrospective analysis. Smoking represents the most common and important risk factor. Occupational, dietary, and environmental exogenic carcinogen exposure, as well as several lifestyle factors, can increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Cigarette smoking, exposure to aromatic amines and arsenic are known risk factors for bladder cancer. Evidence on other modifiable risk factors such as carcinogen exposure derived from the diet or environment as well as occupational hazards is still weak. Medical conditions leading to chronic inflammation, altering insulin resistance, negatively modulating the immune system and/or genetic alterations may have a role in bladder cancer carcinogenesis. Further studies are, however, necessary to identify possible exogenic risk factors, as well as their interactions, that partake in the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer.