PENIS CANCER: Edited by Oscar R. Brouwer and Daher C. ChadeRisk factors and molecular characterization of penile cancer: impact on prognosis and potential targets for systemic therapyThomas, Anitaa,∗; Vanthoor, Jorenb,∗; Vos, Gigib; Tsaur, Igora,†; Albersen, Maartenb,†; and in collaboration with the European Reference Network for rare urogenital diseases and complex conditions (eUROGEN)Author Information aDepartment of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Mainz University Medicine, Mainz, Germany bDepartment of Urology, University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium Correspondence to Igor Tsaur, MD, Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Mainz University Medicine, Mainz, Germany, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Tel: +49 6131 172312; fax: +49 6131 173827; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Urology: March 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 2 - p 202-207 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000712 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive summary of risk factors, molecular machinery as well as potential therapeutic targets with a particular focus on literature published in the last 2 years on prognosis and treatment of penile cancer (PeCa). Recent findings E2F, LAMC2, MAML2, ID1 and IGFBP2 proteins were demonstrated to play a critical role for aggressive tumor behavior and might predict poor survival in PeCa. PD-L1 axis was confirmed as a promising pathway to serve as a therapeutic target. A number of genetic alterations were illuminated. In clinical testing, pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor dacomitinib provided promising results in chemo-naïve and EGFR monoantibody nimotuzumab in chemotherapy-failed PeCa patients. Summary Knowledge of prognosis-relevant altered molecular pathways in PeCa is expanding paving the way for identification of potential therapeutic targets. Multicenter clinical trials in the setting of centralized PeCa care are warranted to foster effective marker-based individualized treatment strategies. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.