ROBOTIC SURGERY IN UROLOGY: FACTS AND REALITY: Edited by Firas Abdollah and Alexandre MottrieTraining in robot-assisted surgeryPuliatti, Stefanoa,b,c; Mazzone, Eliob,c,d; Dell’Oglio, Paolob,cAuthor Information aDepartment of Urology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy bORSI, Academy, Melle cDepartment of Urology, Onze Lieve Vrouw Hospital, Aalst, Belgium dUnit of Urology, Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy Correspondence to Paolo Dell’Oglio, M.D., ORSI, Academy, Melle, Belgium, Department of Urology, Onze Lieve Vrouw Hospital, Aalst, Belgium. Tel: +33 660739104; fax: +32 053 724411; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Urology: January 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 65-72 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000687 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this narrative review is to identify the currently available training programs in the field of robotic-assisted surgery. Recent findings The lack of well trained robotic surgeons represents the main obstacle facing robotic surgery. This calls for development of structured robotic training programs in order to improve patient safety and outcomes. Structured curriculum should consist of theoretical training (e-learning, case observation), preclinical simulation-based training (virtual reality simulation, dry and wet lab), clinical modular training, and final evaluation. Tele-mentoring might reveal mandatory in future curricula development. To date, several training programs are currently available for robotic surgery. However, the majority lack of clinical modular training that consists of progressive, proficiency-based training through surgical steps with increasing levels of complexity. Moreover, many of these curricula lack validation. Summary This recent literature analysis suggests that there is an urgent need to develop and validate new structured training curricula for robotic surgery. This allows to improve the skills of the surgeons and of their team and to prevent patients from being used as a training module optimizing their safety. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.