The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the impact of gender on oncologic outcomes of bladder cancer (BCa).
Women are more likely to experience disease recurrence, progression, and/or death across all disease states. Furthermore, women are less likely to respond to intravesical therapy for nonmuscle invasive BCa. These disparities are explained by several hypotheses such as differential exposure to environmental carcinogens, hormonal factors, and/or disease management. Additionally, it has been shown that women suffer from delays in diagnosis because of inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. On genomic analyses, women were found to be more likely to harbor basal subtypes of BCa compared with men.
A steadily growing body of evidence reveals that women present with more advanced BCa and have stage-for-stage worse outcome compared with men. The underlying mechanisms for this gender difference are multifactorial. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular underpinning of this gender-gap and subsequently explore potential novel gender-specific management strategies.
aDepartment of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
bDepartment of Urology Jikei University School of Medicine Tokyo, Japan
cDepartment of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York
dDepartment of Urology, Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas, USA
eKarl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria
fInstitute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia
gDepartment of Special Surgery, Division of Urology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Correspondence to Mohammad Abufaraj, Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: email@example.com