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Recent developments in penile cancer imaging

de Vries, Hielke M.a; Brouwer, Oscar R.a; Heijmink, Stijnb; Horenblas, Simona; Vegt, Erikc

doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000585
PENILE CANCER: Edited by Philippe E. Spiess and Maarten Albersen

Purpose of review This review discusses new findings in penile cancer imaging in relation to the European Association of Urology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines.

Recent findings For imaging in penile cancer patients who are candidates for organ-sparing primary treatment, ultrasound with Doppler seems to be the method of choice in addition to physical examination. The sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure is used to detect small nodal metastases in clinically node-negative patients. In recent years, this procedure has been enhanced by 3D imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with computed tomography (CT) to improve preoperative localization and interpretation of sentinel nodes, as well as hybrid fluorescent and radioactive tracers to increase intraoperative localization of sentinel nodes. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) with CT appears to be mainly useful for pelvic and distant staging in clinically node-positive patients. Other modalities with a potential future role in penile cancer are ultrasound with shear wave elastography, FDG-PET with MRI and ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI.

Summary Imaging modalities in penile cancer have advanced throughout the years, assisting in treatment decision-making and during invasive procedures.

aDepartment of Urology

bDepartment of Radiology

cDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Correspondence to Erik Vegt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail:

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