Obesity and stonesSarica, KemalCurrent Opinion in Urology: January 2019 - Volume 29 - Issue 1 - p 27–32 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000557 SPECIAL COMMENTARIES Buy SDC Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review The incidence of urolithiasis has shown a prominent increase in the last two to three decades and evidence-based data have clearly indicated the certain role of obesity and overweight in both children and adults. As a certain component of metabolic syndrome, ‘obesity’ has been found to have a significant impact on the urinary metabolic risk factors which may be important in stone formation. In this present review article, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between obesity and urolithiasis and related risk factors. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of stone disease in obese cases will be discussed in detail. Recent findings The possible influence of overweight/obesity on the metabolic stone-forming risk factors has been subjected to several studies which in turn well demonstrated the increased risk of stone formation in this population. Although the exact underlying mechanisms are still to be outlined, some certain pathogenetic factors, namely, changes in urinary pH and increased excretion of some urinary stone components have been well demonstrated. Given this increased risk status, these cases require a more comprehensive workup for urolithiasis. Appropriate metabolic evaluation-based medical therapy alongside dietary recommendations will be effective in preventing stone formation. Summary Patients suffering from obesity problem have particular risk factors for urolithiasis when compared with their normal-weight counterparts. All efforts should be taken to increase the awareness of this problem and necessary precautions with well-planned treatment plan are the main tasks for urologists. Department of Urology, Kafkas University Medical School, Kars, Turkey Correspondence to Kemal Sarica, MD, PhD, Department of Urology, Kafkas University Medical School, Kars, Turkey. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.