To summarize recent findings on tissue biomarkers for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with an emphasis on their prognostic and predictive role.
Accurate risk stratification is essential and the major driver in patient counseling regarding surveillance and decision making relative to therapeutic strategies. In NMIBC, there is an unmet need for improving the accuracy of current prognostic and predictive models, which rely only on clinicopathologic features and do not reflect the biological heterogeneity of the cancer in each individual. Studies continuously shed novel light on some processes involved in cancerogenesis, host response and interactions in the tumor's own microenvironment, which may be considered as potential biomarkers and targets for future directed therapies.
Biomarkers are necessary to transform bladder cancer management and usher in the age of personalized medicine. The clinical use is, however, still limited because of heterogeneity in study design, staining methods and an overall lacking adherence to a structured biomarker testing process.
aDepartment of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
bInstitute of Andrology and Urology, Karl Landsteiner University, Krems an der Donau, Austria.
cDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, Texas, USA.
dDepartment of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA
Correspondence to Shahrokh F. Shariat, MD, Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 1 40 400 26150, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org