PREVENTION OF UROLOGIC CALCULI - BEHAVIOURAL, DIETARY, AND MEDICAL ASPECTS: Edited by Evangelos Liatsikos and Margaret PearlePediatric calculi cause, prevention and medical managementScoffone, Cesare M.; Cracco, Cecilia M.Author Information Department of Urology, Cottolengo Hospital, Torino, Italy Correspondence to Cesare M. Scoffone, MD, Department of Urology, Cottolengo Hospital, via Cottolengo 9, 10152 Torino, Italy. Tel: +39 0115294414; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Urology: September 2018 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 428-432 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000520 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is on the rise, with a significant related morbidity and a concomitant relevant increase in healthcare costs. The purpose of this review is to portray the current epidemiology and cause of renal stones in children, to provide a framework for appropriate clinical evaluation on an individual basis, and a guidance regarding treatment and prevention for the significant risk of lifelong recurrence and deriving complications. Recent findings The early identification of modifiable risk factors and other abnormalities is essential, to prevent related morbidity, the onset of chronic kidney disease, and the associated increased risk of developing other diseases. The implementation of risk reduction strategies, including dietary modifications and targeted pharmacological therapies, will significantly influence stone recurrences and preserve renal function. Summary Future research is desirable, with the aim to strengthen personalized conservative management of pediatric nephrolithiasis as first-line treatment. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.