PREVENTION IN UROLOGY: Edited by J. Kellogg Parsons and Maximilian BurgerPrevention of kidney cancer incidence and recurrence lifestyle, medication and nutritionTahbaz, Ranaa; Schmid, Marianneb; Merseburger, Axel S.c Author Information aDepartment of Urology, Elbe Kliniken Stade, Stade bDepartment of Urology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen cDepartment of Urology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany Correspondence to Rana Tahbaz, MD, FEBU, Department of Urology, Elbe Kliniken Stade, Bremervörderstrasse 111, D-21682 Stade, Germany. Tel: +49 4141 972029; fax: +49 4141 9715002; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: January 2018 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - p 62-79 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000454 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The incidence of kidney cancer rises globally with the highest rates in developed countries. This demonstrates the impact of advanced diagnostic imaging but also rising prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, obesity and hypertension. A literature search was performed with focus on recent studies on risk factors related to lifestyle, medication and nutrition. Further we searched for the effect of cancer prevention strategies. Recent findings Overall, we included 76 studies of the past 5 years. Based on current evidence smoking tobacco, obesity and hypertension remain established risk factors for kidney cancer. Certain analgesics and consumption of processed meat have been linked to increase development of renal cell carcinoma, although data are limited. Fruits, fiber-rich vegetables, coffee and physical activity may have a protective effect against kidney cancer but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Significantly, there is an increasing evidence of inverse association between moderate alcohol consumption. Summary Overall evidence confirms an effective way to prevent the risk of kidney cancer is maintaining a healthy weight and avoid smoking. State policies should further ensure strategies to raise public awareness and support to adopt healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.