Purpose of review
We review the influence of nutrition and lifestyle on bladder cancer incidence and recurrence and summarize food items, diets and lifestyle practices that physicians may wish to prioritize for discussion with their patients.
Recent study results suggest an association between bladder cancer incidence and several food items including meat, fruit, vegetables, milk products and oil. Micronutrient deficiency is associated with bladder cancer risk; however, it remains unclear if micronutrient supplementation can modify bladder cancer incidence. Furthermore, total fluid intake, alcohol, coffee and tea seem to have no influence on bladder cancer incidence. There is weak evidence that stress, anxiety and lack of sleep may increase the risk of developing bladder cancer, whereas exercise may reduce the risk of dying from it.
Several dietary items and life styles are associated with bladder cancer incidence and recurrence. However, besides smoking cessation, there is no evidence that a certain diet or lifestyle can decrease bladder cancer incidence.