The role of prostatic inflammation in the development and progression of benign and malignant diseasesGandaglia, Giorgio; Zaffuto, Emanuele; Fossati, Nicola; Cucchiara, Vito; Mirone, Vincenzo; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, AlbertoCurrent Opinion in Urology: March 2017 - Volume 27 - Issue 2 - p 99–106 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000369 INFECTIOUS AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASE IN UROLOGY: Edited by Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen and Tommaso Cai Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review To evaluate the role of prostatic inflammation in the development and progression of benign and malignant prostatic diseases. Recent findings Preclinical studies demonstrate that the activation of a chronic inflammatory prostatic response plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Approximately 40–70% of patients with BPH-related lower urinary tract symptoms harbour chronic inflammation at pathologic evaluation. These individuals should be considered at increased risk of symptom progression and acute urinary retention. Although currently available drugs approved for the treatment of BPH do not have an anti-inflammatory activity, the development of novel molecules that target the inflammatory pathway represents a promising area in the pharmacological treatment of BPH. Preclinical evidences support a potential role of chronic prostatic inflammation in the malignant transformation of prostatic cells. However, clinical investigations on the association between prostatic inflammation and the risk of PCa report conflicting results. Summary Men with BPH-related lower urinary tract symptoms and chronic prostatic inflammation should be considered at increased risk of symptom progression and acute urinary retention during follow-up. Although preclinical studies provide a biological rationale for the relationship between inflammation and the risk of PCa, clinical investigations report conflicting results and the direct relationship between inflammation and malignant transformation in the human prostate is still debated. aDivision of Oncology/Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele bVita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan cDepartment of Urology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy Correspondence to Giorgio Gandaglia, MD, Division of Oncology/Unit of Urology ; URI; IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Tel: +39 0226437286; fax: +39 0226437286; e-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.