EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN UROLOGIC SURGERY: Edited by Jean J.M.C.H. de la Rosette and Jim C. HuNew technologies for upper tract urothelial carcinoma managementBaard, Joyce; Freund, Jan Erik; de la Rosette, Jean J.M.C.H.; Laguna, Maria P.Author Information Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Correspondence to Dr Joyce Baard, MD, Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, G4-236, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 20 5661454; fax: +31 20 5669585; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Urology: March 2017 - Volume 27 - Issue 2 - p 170-175 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000373 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Image enhancement techniques and optical diagnostic tools have emerged in the quest to improve diagnostics and treatment in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC). The aim of the present report is to describe their mechanisms of action and to assess the current evidence on applicability and utility in UTUC. Recent findings Image enhancement techniques including narrow band imaging, Image1 S, and photodynamic diagnosis aim at better visualization of malignant urothelium and especially flat tumours or carcinoma in situ which are often difficult to see with white light endoscopy. Conducted studies in the upper tract are scarce but first results show that tumour detection seems to be better for narrow band imaging and photodynamic diagnosis-guided inspection. Optical diagnostic tools as confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography aim at providing real time optical biopsies giving pathologic information. A pilot study of optical coherence tomography proved its feasibility to visualize, grade and stage low and high-grade UTUC. Summary Better visualization of suspect lesions and optical diagnostic techniques providing real time optical biopsies aim to facilitate in higher diagnostic precision and optimal individualized treatment of our patients with UTUC. As the disease is rare, studies are scarce but indispensable for future implication of these techniques. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.