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The devastated bladder outlet

treatment options

Riedmiller, Hubertus; Kocot, Arkadius

doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000185

Purpose of review The purpose of this study is to review and discuss recently published studies of therapeutic options in cases with the combination of severe sphincteric damage and recurrent stricture of the bladder neck or anastomosis in patients with postradical prostatectomy.

Recent findings Recent focus has been on successful management of recurrent bladder neck contracture with urethral dilatation or endoscopic techniques even in patients with prior history of additional radiation therapy. In addition, some authors include injectable agents in their armamentarium for the treatment of recurrent bladder neck stricture. Failure of all attempts to restore the bladder outlet and urethral patency results in a devastated bladder outlet with persistence of urinary incontinence, sometimes worsened when combined with recurrent obstruction. For this small subgroup of patients with severe damage of the lower urinary tract, treatment options are rare. In the current literature, several case series can be found, but no clinical trials exist to provide an evidence-based approach to this severe disorder. Open reconstructive techniques or urinary diversion with reservoirs made from bowel are necessary in these patients. In recent studies, laparoscopic and robot-assisted approaches have also been described.

Summary In case of a ‘nonreconstructible’ devastated bladder outlet treatment, options are limited. These devastating conditions require a definitive surgical solution. Bladder neck closure, continent vesicostomy in most cases combined with augmentation or urinary diversion with or without cystectomy are last resort techniques for this problem.

Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Julius-Maximilians-University Medical School, Wuerzburg, Germany

Correspondence to Hubertus Riedmiller, MD, PhD, Department of Urology and Paediatric Urology, Julius-Maximilians-University Medical School, Oberduerrbacher Strasse 6, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany. Tel: +49 931 201 32001; fax: +49 931 201 32009; e-mail:

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