IMAGING OF PROSTATE CANCER: Edited by Peter A. PintoCurrent status of transrectal ultrasound techniques in prostate cancerSmeenge, Martijn; de la Rosette, Jean J.M.C.H.; Wijkstra, Hessel Author Information Department of Urology, AMC University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Correspondence to Martijn Smeenge, MD, AMC University Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 20 566 6030; fax: +31 20 566 9585; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: July 2012 - Volume 22 - Issue 4 - p 297-302 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e3283548154 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Present the current status of transrectal ultrasound imaging in prostate cancer (PCa) and discuss the latest techniques now under preclinical evaluation. Recent findings Three-dimensional ultrasound and quantification techniques are superior to two-dimensional ultrasound in visualizing PCa and can be beneficial in staging prior to operation. Doppler-guided biopsies are more likely to yield positive results, especially when high Gleason scores are present. Furthermore, Vardenafil usage strengthens Doppler enhancement and can help in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of Doppler. Multiple studies show elastography to be a promising new addition to the ultrasound investigations for detection of PCa. Especially the recently introduced Shear Wave Elastography shows decreased user dependency and increased PCa detection rates. MRI can also aid in the diagnostics of PCa. However, MRI-guided biopsies are more complicated compared to ultrasound guidance. MRI/ultrasound fusion combines best of both techniques and, although just recently emerged, the studies available show promising PCa detection rates. Summary Technical improvements in classical ultrasound modalities (2D/3D-greyscale, Doppler) and new modalities (elastography/MRI/ultrasound fusion) raised the accuracy of PCa detection. Especially latest elastography and MRI/ultrasound fusion are showing promising results in PCa visualization. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.