New developments in imaging of urologic tumours: Edited by Hedvig HricakAdvances in positron emission tomography applications for urologic cancersLarson, Steven M; Schöder, HeikoAuthor Information Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to Steven M. Larson, MD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of radiology/Nuclear Medicine, 1275 York Avenue, Box 77, New York, NY 10021, USA Tel: +1 212 639 7373; fax: +1 212 717 3263; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Urology: January 2008 - Volume 18 - Issue 1 - p 65-70 doi: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e3282f19cde Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Molecular imaging in oncology utilizes advances in imaging technology with probes that image key molecules and molecular based events that are fundamental for malignant change and progression. PET in combination with computed tomography will be the means by which molecular imaging will be translated into the advanced practice of urology. This review introduces the concept of molecular imaging and summarizes current and future molecular imaging approaches that are likely to have a major impact on clinical practice in the near future. Recent findings In renal cancer, a radiolabeled antibody, iodine-124 cG250, shows promise for improving management of small clear-cell renal cancers through noninvasive immunologic identification as a basis for differential diagnosis of other renal masses. In prostate cancer, antibodies to key antigens, such as prostate specific membrane antigen, along with metabolic probes, for glycolysis (fluorodeoxyglucose) and amino acid transport (C-11 methionine) are likely to improve early detection of regional and distant metastases and provide a basis for improved monitoring of treatment response. Summary Molecular imaging, through PET/computed tomography will help individualize patient care for surgical urology. Applications will include noninvasive image-based immunotyping of human cancers and metabolic based staging, detection and treatment monitoring for urologic malignancies. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.