The management of patients with ureteral stones remains under debate in several areas. The ability to predict spontaneous passage has improved but remains imprecise, whilst the range of therapeutic options continues to widen. Excellent results can be obtained by both shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopic methods, with relatively minimal complications. Routine ureteral stenting is not warranted whichever treatment is chosen. In future, directly comparative studies should be designed to incorporate quality-of-life parameters rather than just stone-free status, to improve our understanding of the effect of treatment decisions on patients.
Bristol Urological Institute, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
Correspondence to Mr Francis X. Keeley Jr MD, FRCS (Ed.), FRCS (Urol.), Bristol Urological Institute, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK. Tel: +44 117 959 5144; fax: +44 117 950 2229; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org