The high success rates of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and endourological techniques, together with their ease of use, in the treatment of urinary stones often overshadow the importance of the metabolic component of stone disease. It is my opinion that the prevention of further stones complements management of the acute episode. This review summarizes a variety of approaches to the measurement and manipulation of individual risk factors in recurrent urinary stone disease.
Department of Urology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Correspondence to Dr Richard W. Norman, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Victoria General Site, Victoria Building, 5 South, Room 293, 1278 Tower Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9, Canada. Tel: +1 902 473 5853; fax: +1 902 473 5855; e-mail: Richard.Norman@dal.ca