The past decade has witnessed significant changes not only in our understanding of intrinsic sphincter deficiency, but also in our surgical approach to this problem. It became evident that the patient's medical condition, expectations, and degree of incontinence should define the approach in order to make the greatest impact on quality of life. The present review describes the current concepts and surgical approaches to intrinsic sphincter deficiency, namely slings, injectables, and artificial sphincters.
Tulane University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Correspondence to Gamal M. Ghoniem, MD, Professor of Urology, Tulane University Medical School, 1430 Tulane Avenue, Box SL-42-Urology, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Tel: +1 504 588 5274; fax: +1 504 588 5059; e-mail: email@example.com