The role of salvage prostatectomy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer remains unclear. Recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy is in many cases biologically aggressive. It is unclear whether the biologic aggressiveness of radiorecurrent prostate cancer is due to time-dependent cancer clonal evolution (potentially induced by radiation damage), or is due to an innately aggressive tumor secondary to overexpression or mutation of apoptotic inhibitors that render these tumors resistant to radiation. Recent studies examined the role of DNA ploidy, p53 and bcl-2 expression, proliferative indices and glutathione S-transferase-π in predicting response to radiation therapy or salvage prostatectomy. Because of the potential for significant morbidity after salvage prostatectomy, preoperative parameters that aid in the identification of the patients who are most likely to benefit from surgery are needed.