The efficiency and safety profile of the holmium laser have made this tool a versatile multipurpose instrument for use in the endoscopic treatment of a wide variety of urologic disorders. Herein are reviewed holmium laser physics and current endourologic applications, as well as the performance of new low-power holmium lasers.
The Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center, The Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Correspondence to Glenn M. Preminger, MD, Division of Urology, Box 3167, Room 305 Baker House, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Tel: +1 919 681 5505; fax: +1 919 681 5507; e-mail: email@example.com