This review of recent literature on renal cell carcinoma reveals that advanced stages of the disease continue to be devastating. Whereas immunotherapy demonstrates promising response rates, the overall efficacy remains limited. An expanding body of literature links the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma to mutations in genes such as the von Hippel-Lindau and p53 tumor suppressor genes. Similarly, significant work was devoted to the identification of prognostic factors. Finally, efforts to unravel the immune mechanisms and to develop therapeutic strategies are addressed.
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