The appropriate design of RCTs for novel drugs and study end points including growth, pubertal development, QOL outcome criteria and compliance should be well defined in children. Future RCTs should consider long-term follow-up of pediatric patients following organ transplantation for determining long-term predictors of response.
Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as:
1. Sweet SC. Multicenter collaboration in pediatric
lung transplantation: the importance of consensus. Pediatr Transplant 2013; 17:197–198.
2. Sweet SC. Pediatric
lung transplantation. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2009; 6:122–127.
3. Solomon M, Grasemann H, Keshavjee S. Pediatric
lung transplantation. Pediatr Clin North Am 2010; 57:375–391.table of contents.
4. Spada M, Riva S, Maggiore G, et al. Pediatric
liver transplantation. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15:648–674.
5. Fishbein TM. Intestinal transplantation. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:998–1008.
6. Khaghani A, Santini F, Dyke CM, et al. Heterotopic cardiac transplantation in infants and children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 113:1042–1048.discussion 8–9.
7. Backer CL, Zales VR, Harrison HL, et al. Intermediate term results of infant orthotopic cardiac transplantation from two centers. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991; 101:826–832.
8. Jr CG, Gregianin LJ, Brunetto AL. Bone marrow transplantation and cord blood transplantation in children. J Pediatr 2001; 77:345–360.
9. Aurora P, Boucek MM, Christie J, et al. Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: tenth official pediatric
lung and heart/lung transplantation report–2007. J Heart Lung Transplant 2007; 26:1223–1228.
10. Benden C, Edwards LB, Kucheryavaya AY, et al. The registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: sixteenth official pediatric
lung and heart-lung transplantation report–2013; focus theme: age. J Heart Lung Transplant 2013; 32:989–997.
11. Kaufman SS, Atkinson JB, Bianchi A, et al. Indications for pediatric
intestinal transplantation: a position paper of the American Society of Transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 2001; 5:80–87.
12. Canter CE, Shaddy RE, Bernstein D, et al. Indications for heart transplantation in pediatric
heart disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Cardiovascular Nursing, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 2007; 115:658–676.
13. EBPG EG. European best practice guidelines for renal transplantation. Section IV: long-term management of the transplant recipient. IV.11 Paediatrics (specific problems). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17 (Suppl 4):55–58.
14. Ljungman P, Bregni M, Brune M, et al. Allogeneic and autologous transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45:219–234.
15. Kotloff RM, Thabut G. Lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 184:159–171.
16. Mendeloff EN. The history of pediatric
heart and lung transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 2002; 6:270–279.
17. Huddleston CB. Surgical complications of lung transplantation in children. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 8:296–304.
18. Huddleston CB. Pediatric
lung transplantation. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2011; 13:68–78.
19. Ibrahim JE, Sweet SC, Flippin M, et al. Rejection is reduced in thoracic organ recipients when transplanted in the first year of life. J Heart Lung Transplant 2002; 21:311–318.
20. Liu M, Worley S, Arrigain S, et al. Respiratory viral infections within one year after pediatric
lung transplant. Transpl Infect Dis 2009; 11:304–312.
21. Kurland G, Deterding RR, Hagood JS, et al. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline: classification, evaluation, and management of childhood interstitial lung disease in infancy. Am J Respir Crit Care med 2013; 188:376–394.
22. Starzl TE, Groth CG, Brettschneider L, et al. Orthotopic homotransplantation of the human liver. Ann Surg 1968; 168:392–415.
23. Bismuth H, Houssin D. Reduced-sized orthotopic liver graft in hepatic transplantation in children. Surgery 1984; 95:367–370.
24. Pichlmayr R, Ringe B, Gubernatis G, et al. Transplantation of a donor liver to 2 recipients (splitting transplantation): a new method in the further development of segmental liver transplantation. Langenbecks Archiv fur Chirurgie 1988; 373:127–130.
25. Raia S, Nery JR, Mies S. Liver transplantation from live donors. Lancet 1989; 2:497.
26. Strong RW, Lynch SV, Ong TH, et al. Successful liver transplantation from a living donor to her son. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1505–1507.
27. Tzakis A, Todo S, Starzl TE. Orthotopic liver transplantation with preservation of the inferior vena cava. Ann Surg 1989; 210:649–652.
28. Miloh T, Kerkar N, Parkar S, et al. Improved outcomes in pediatric
liver transplantation for acute liver failure. Pediatr Transplant 2010; 14:863–869.
29. Mohamed El, Moghazy W, Ogura Y, et al. Pediatric
living-donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure: analysis of 57 cases. Transpl Int 2010; 23:823–830.
30. Farmer DG, Venick RS, McDiarmid SV, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: superior and durable outcomes with liver transplantation over 25 years at a single center. Ann Surg 2009; 250:484–493.
31. Martin SR, Atkison P, Anand R, Lindblad AS. Studies of Pediatric
Liver Transplantation 2002: patient and graft survival and rejection in pediatric
recipients of a first liver transplant in the United States and Canada. Pediatr Transplant 2004; 8:273–283.
32. Evrard V, Otte JB, Sokal E, et al. Impact of surgical and immunological parameters in pediatric
liver transplantation: a multivariate analysis in 500 consecutive recipients of primary grafts. Ann Surg 2004; 239:272–280.
33. Goss JA, Shackleton CR, McDiarmid SV, et al. Long-term results of pediatric
liver transplantation: an analysis of 569 transplants. Ann Surg 1998; 228:411–420.
34. Lao OB, Healey PJ, Perkins JD, et al. Outcomes in children after intestinal transplant. Pediatrics 2010; 125:e550–e558.
35. Mian SI, Dutta S, Le B, et al. Factors affecting survival to intestinal transplantation in the very young pediatric
patient. Transplantation 2008; 85:1287–1289.
36. Kantrowitz A, Haller JD, Joos H, et al. Transplantation of the heart in an infant and an adult. Am J Cardiol 1968; 22:782–790.
37. Dipchand AI, Kirk R, Edwards LB, et al. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: sixteenth official pediatric
heart transplantation Report–2013; focus theme: age. J Heart Lung Transplant 2013; 32:979–988.
38. Zuppan CW, Wells LM, Kerstetter JC, et al. Cause of death in pediatric
and infant heart transplant recipients: review of a 20-year, single-institution cohort. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009; 28:579–584.
39. Starzl TE, Marchioro TL, Porter KA, et al. The role of organ transplantation
in pediatrics Marchioro TL. Pediatr Clin North Am 1966; 13:381–422.
40. Shapiro R. Living donor kidney transplantation in pediatric
recipients. Pediatr Transplant 2006; 10:844–850.
41. Farrugia D, Cheshire J, Mahboob S, et al. Mortality after pediatric
kidney transplantation in England: a population-based cohort study. Pediatr Transplant 2014; 18:16–22.
42. Sullivan KM, Parkman R. The pathophysiology and treatment of graft-versus-host disease. Clin Haematol 1983; 12:775–789.
43. Srinivasan A, Wang C, Srivastava DK, et al. Timeline, epidemiology, and risk factors for bacterial, fungal, and viral infections in children and adolescents after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013; 19:94–101.
44. Coelho T, Tredger M, Dhawan A. Current status of immunosuppressive agents for solid organ transplantation
in children. Pediatr Transplant 2012; 16:106–122.
45. Schonder KS, Mazariegos GV, Weber RJ. Adverse effects of immunosuppression
solid organ transplantation
. Paediatr Drugs 2010; 12:35–49.
46. Fridell JA, Jain A, Reyes J, et al. Causes of mortality beyond 1 year after primary pediatric
liver transplant under tacrolimus. Transplantation 2002; 74:1721–1724.
47▪. Nguyen C, Shapiro R. New immunosuppressive agents in pediatric
transplantation. Clinics 2014; 69 (Suppl 1):8–16.
The author talks about the newer immunosuppressive agents available for induction therapy, maintenance immunosuppression, and the treatment of rejection. It has been shown that the use of these newer agents in the pediatric population has been limited in clinical studies, leading to off-label usage in pediatric centers based on small case studies. In addition, the long-term risks of newer immunosuppressive agents are not well documented and pose several challenges for clinicians.
48▪▪. Azeka E, Saavedra LC, Fregni F. Clinical research in pediatric organ transplantation
. Clinics 2014; 69 (Suppl 1):73–75.
The author highlighted the fundamental challenges related to the design and execution of clinical trials and observational studies for pediatric solid-organ transplantation.
49. Azeka E, Fregni F. Cardiovascular research: new model of collaborative training program. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 2010; 95:281–282.
50. Azeka E, Fregni F, Auler Junior JO. The past, present and future of clinical research. Clinics 2011; 66:931–932.
51. LaRosa C, Baluarte HJ, Meyers KE. Outcomes in pediatric
. Pediatr Transplant 2011; 15:128–141.
52. Qvist E, Jalanko H, Holmberg C. Psychosocial adaptation after solid organ transplantation
in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 2003; 50:1505–1519.
53. Kaufman M, Shemesh E, Benton T. The adolescent transplant recipient. Pediatr Clin North Am 2010; 57:575–592.table of contents.
54. Malyszko J, Durlik M, Przybylowski P. Kidney dysfunction after non renal solid organ transplantation
. Ann Transplant 2009; 14:71–79.7.
55. Benden C, Kansra S, Ridout DA, et al. Chronic kidney disease in children following lung and heart-lung transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 2009; 13:104–110.
56. Tangeraas T, Bjerre A, Lien B, et al. Long-term outcome of pediatric
renal transplantation: the Norwegian experience in three eras 1970–2006. Pediatr Transplant 2008; 12:762–768.
57. Allain-Launay E, Roussey-Kesler G, Ranchin B, et al. Mortality in pediatric
renal transplantation: a study of the French pediatric
kidney database. Pediatr Transplant 2009; 13:725–730.
58. Gross TG, Savoldo B, Punnett A. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative diseases. Pediatr Clin North Am 2010; 57:481–503.table of contents.
59. Falger J, Latal B, Landolt MA, et al. Outcome after renal transplantation. Part I: intellectual and motor performance. Pediatr Nephrol 2008; 23:1339–1345.