DISPARITIES IN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Paulo N. MartinsGender and racial disparities in the transplant surgery workforceValbuena, Valeria S.M.a,b,k; Obayemi, Joy E.a; Purnell, Tanjala S.c; Scantlebury, Velma P.d; Olthoff, Kim M.e; Martins, Paulo N.f; Higgins, Robert S.c; Blackstock, Daryle M.g; Dick, André A.S.h; Watkins, Anthony C.i; Englesbe, Michael J.a; Simpson, Dinee C.jAuthor Information aDepartment of Surgery bNational Clinician Scholars Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan cDepartment of Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland dTexas Christian University and University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas eDepartment of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania fDepartment of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, UMass Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts, Worcester, Massachusetts gNew York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York hDepartment of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington iDepartment of Surgery, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York jDepartment of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois kCenter for Healthcare Outcomes and Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Correspondence to Valeria S.M. Valbuena, MD, MSc, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, 2110 Taubman Center, SPC 5346, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Tel: +1 734 232 4765; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation: October 2021 - Volume 26 - Issue 5 - p 560-566 doi: 10.1097/MOT.0000000000000915 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review explores trends in the United States (US) transplant surgery workforce with a focus on historical demographics, post-fellowship job market, and quality of life reported by transplant surgeons. Ongoing efforts to improve women and racial/ethnic minority representation in transplant surgery are highlighted. Future directions to create a transplant workforce that reflects the diversity of the US population are discussed. Recent findings Representation of women and racial and ethnic minorities among transplant surgeons is minimal. Although recent data shows an improvement in the number of Black transplant surgeons from 2% to 5.5% and an increase in women to 12%, the White to Non-White transplant workforce ratio has increased 35% from 2000 to 2013. Transplant surgeons report an average of 4.3 call nights per week and less than five leisure days a month. Transplant ranks 1st among surgical sub-specialties in the prevalence of three well-studied facets of burnout. Concerns about lifestyle may contribute to the decreasing demand for advanced training in abdominal transplantation by US graduates. Summary Minimal improvements have been made in transplant surgery workforce diversity. Sustained and intentional recruitment and promotion efforts are needed to improve the representation of women and minority physicians and advanced practice providers in the field. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.