TRANSPLANT IMMUNOLOGY: REJECTION, TOLERANCE AND HISTOCOMPATIBILITY: Edited by Paolo CravediFollicular T-cell regulation of alloantibody formationMohammed, Mostafa T.a,b; Sage, Peter T.bAuthor Information aClinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt bRenal Division, Transplantation Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Peter T. Sage, Renal Division, Transplantation Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Tel: +1 617 525 8002; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation: February 2020 - Volume 25 - Issue 1 - p 22-26 doi: 10.1097/MOT.0000000000000715 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To summarize recent studies elucidating the roles of follicular T cells in controlling allospecific antibody responses and antibody-mediated rejection (AbMR). Recent findings The field of antibody regulation has provided an in depth identification of the T-cell subsets involved in regulation of antibody responses. In addition, tools have been developed to study these cells during disease. Over the past few years, these strategies have been implemented in the field of transplantation to study the roles of T cells in mediating pathogenic antibody responses. Summary AbMR is largely responsible for long-term graft failure after solid organ transplantation and is induced by allospecific antibodies. In vaccination and infection, antiboody responses are controlled by humoral immunoregulation in which T follicular helper (Tfh) cells promote, and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells inhibit, antibody responses. Recent studies have suggested multifaceted roles for follicular T-cell subsets in regulating allospecific antibody responses and AbMR during organ transplantation. In addition, we discuss research priorities for the field to help elucidate mechanisms used by these cells so that new targeted therapeutics can be developed to prevent AbMR in human organ transplantation. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.