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Adipogenesis for soft tissue reconstruction

Karagoz, Huseyin*; Zor, Fatih*; Goktas, Esra; Gorantla, Vijay S.

Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation: October 2019 - Volume 24 - Issue 5 - p 598–603
doi: 10.1097/MOT.0000000000000694
ORGANOGENESIS: Edited by Giuseppe Orlando
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Purpose of review It has been increasingly common to use adipose tissue for regenerative and reconstructive purposes. Applications of autologous fat transfer and different stem cell therapies have significant limitations and adipose tissue engineering may have the potential to be an important strategy in the reconstruction of large tissue defects. A better understanding of adipogenesis will help to develop strategies to make adipose tissue more effective for repairing volumetric defects.

Recent findings We provide an overview of the current applications of adipose tissue transfer and cellular therapy methods for soft tissue reconstruction, cellular physiology, and factors influencing adipogenesis, and adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, we discuss mechanical properties and vascularization strategies of engineered adipose tissue, and its potential applications in the clinical settings.

Summary Autologous fat tissue transfer is the standard of care technique for the majority of surgeons; however, high resorption rates, poor perfusion within a large volume fat graft and widely inconsistent graft survival are the main limitations. Adipose tissue engineering is a promising field to reach the first goal of producing adipose tissue which has more predictable survival and higher graft retention rates. Advancements of scaffold and vascularization strategies will contribute to metabolically and functionally more relevant adipose tissue engineering.

Department of Surgery, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA

Correspondence to Huseyin Karagoz, Department of Surgery, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Room 318, Richard H. Dean Biomedical Building, 391 Technology Way NE, Winston Salem, NC 27101, USA. Tel: +1 336 716 5327; fax: +1 336 713 7290; e-mail: hkaragoz@wakehealth.edu

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