Purpose of review
Allo- and autoantibodies have been found to play important roles in both acute and chronic allograft rejection in organ transplantation, although only recently have non-human leukocyte antigen (non-HLA), nondonor-specific antibodies been given a more in-depth treatment. This review summarizes recent reports about investigations and proteomic approaches to identify self-antigens and corresponding autoantibodies that are associated with acute and chronic allograft rejection. Finally, we discuss the insights gained from these, challenges, and future prospects.
Significant discoveries have been made regarding the presence and role of autoantibodies and alloantibodies, both those formed pretransplant and posttransplant, in acute and chronic rejection. These discoveries are made possible because of the publication of the human genome and subsequent development in the ability of expression and analysis of human proteome.
Antibodies play a critical role in survival and dysfunction of a transplanted kidney. Even though HLA antibodies have been given the majority of the scientific community's attention for the past few decades, antibodies against autoantigens and that of non-HLA origin are gaining attention. Recent publications have identified novel self-antigens that are associated with acute and chronic rejection that have added to our understanding of new players in immune-related transplant rejection.