TOLERANCE INDUCTION: Edited by Joren C. MadsenInnate lymphoid cells the new kids on the blockWithers, David R.; Mackley, Emma C.; Jones, Nick D.Author Information MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute for Biomedical Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Correspondence to Nick D. Jones, MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute for Biomedical Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Tel: +44 121 414 3923; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation: August 2015 - Volume 20 - Issue 4 - p 385-391 doi: 10.1097/MOT.0000000000000205 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in our understanding of innate lymphoid cell function and to speculate on how these cells may become activated and influence the immune response to allogeneic tissues and cells following transplantation. Recent findings Innate lymphoid cells encompass several novel cell types whose wide-ranging roles in the immune system are only now being uncovered. Through cytokine production, cross-talk with both haematopoietic and nonhaematopoietic populations and antigen presentation to T cells, these cells have been shown to be key regulators in maintaining tissue integrity, as well as initiating and then sustaining immune responses. Summary It is now clear that innate lymphoid cells markedly contribute to immune responses and tissue repair in a number of disease contexts. Although experimental and clinical data on the behaviour of these cells following transplantation are scant, it is highly likely that innate lymphoid cells will perform similar functions in the alloimmune response following transplantation and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets for manipulation to prevent allograft rejection. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.